[6] On 9 October, a French assault nearly captured the city, but was beaten back when the troops prematurely turned to looting. The womenfolk in the fort were said to have saved the day. 200 French were killed. The First Siege of Boulogne took place from 19 July to 14 September 1544 and the Second Siege of Boulogne took place in October 1544. Moreover, the action was said to be in breach of treaty. The 1544 Siege of Boulogne by Henry VIII was depicted in the 4th season of the television series The Tudors. [2][3][4] One of the three Polish divisions, the Polish 5th Kresowa Infantry Division, was named after the Kresy region, which was now given to the Soviets in its entirety. [18], Although by the Treaty of Camp, the English had agreed to evacuate Boulogne in 1554, the town was returned to France in 1550 under the Treaty of Boulogne which also concluded the war of Rough Wooing in Scotland. The First Siege of Boulogne took place from 19 July to 14 September 1544 and the Second Siege of Boulogne took place in October 1544. [7], After Henry VIII's personal visit to Boulogne on 18 September the English began fortifying their position. [6] The local Italian population welcomed the Poles as their liberators. Allied Spring Offensive: Italy 1945, 9 April - 2 May. The English overran this artillery position and the French set up another which was less commanding. Fifty years later as allies of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, during the war against the French, the English returned led by Henry VII's son and heir, Henry VIII. "Testing the 'Mystery of the English'". The Allied forces were victorious, with the Polish 2nd Corps and supporting Allied units capturing the city on 21 April. [5] The English army, outnumbered, was now trapped in Calais; the Dauphin, left unopposed, concentrated his efforts on investing Boulogne. [1] The American and British units engaged the German flanks, while the Polish units broke through to the city. At this battle, a Bolognese army under Giovanni I Bentivoglio opposed Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, and his allies, the Malatesta of Rimini and the Gonzaga of Mantua.The city of Bologna was aided by the Republic of Florence in the struggle to halt the expansion of Visconti's power. Henry was motivated to take Boulogne by the French giving aid to England's enemies in Scotland. The Second Siege of Boulogne was an engagement late in the Italian War of 1542–1546. The two armies met at the village of Finale, north of Bologna, on 23 April. Of 1,200 men sent in January 1545, only 300 were still working in June. [1][6] At 08:00, American tanks arrived in the city, followed by Italian partisans. [2][6], Eyewitness account, G.Z. [1] From 15–16 April, the Polish units fought at the Sillaro River and the Medicina Canal. The Dauphin's army descended on Montreuil, forcing the Duke of Norfolk to raise the siege; Henry VIII himself left for England at the end of September 1544, ordering the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to defend Boulogne. The English suspected treachery as four guns blew up on their first firing and around seventy men were absent without leave. [1] The capture of Bologna, an important regional communication hub, was set as a part of that offensive. The lower section of the town, fortified lightly, fell quickly to heavy bombardment, which continued through August. [9] Although records are incomplete, it is clear that large numbers of English labourers died or became sick during the works. The Imperial ambassador, Simon Renard, reported a failed assault on the fort at Boulemberg, or Mount Lambert. Over the following years, neither England nor France found the strength to engage in all-out war with one another. [2][4], Major-General Zygmunt Bohusz-Szyszko (acting commander), The offensive on Bologna started on 9 April at 4am local time, with a major air and artillery bombardment of 400 guns firing on German positions,[5] followed by an advance of ground forces the same evening. The town was to be taken initially by the American troops of the 5th Army advancing from the south. The guns were in four positions; the Old Man; High Boulogne; Base Boulogne; and the Boulemberg (Mont Lambert). He stayed three days and visited the forts of the Boulemberg, Ambleteuse, the Tower of Ardres, the Great Fort and Fort Châtillon (also called Châtillon's garden). The Battle of Bologna was fought in Bologna, Italy from 9–21 April 1945 during the Second World War, as part of the Spring 1945 offensive in Italy. French ships fired at it and the English returned fire. 3 part 1 (1975), 392 citing, Learn how and when to remove this template message, 17th-century plan of Boulogne, Fortified Places, by David Flintham, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sieges_of_Boulogne_(1544–46)&oldid=988701189, Articles needing additional references from July 2012, All articles needing additional references, France articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In this conflict, Polish II Corps, commanded by General Zygmunt Bohusz-Szyszko, suffered 234 dead and 1,228 wounded out of 55,780 frontline personnel. [15] Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset told François van der Delft that the French were constructing forts at Boulogne in contravention of treaty in September 1548; in December the French managed to destroy two new outposts the English were building, and another fort nearer to Guînes and Calais called Fort Fiennes. French attempts to retake Boulogne failed, while English attempts to gain more territory around Calais and Boulogne also failed. One city that suffered particularly heavy bombing was Bologna. [19] The Basilica of Notre-Dame de Boulogne, destroyed or badly damaged by the English, was to be rebuilt, Henry II gave the church a silver statue of Our Lady, and other nobles subscribed money.[20]. Six days later, 5th Army cut the road west of Bologna; on 21 April Bologna fell to the Poles of 8th Army. The Allied forces tasked with this were composed of the US 5th Army and the British 8th Army (which for that part of the theatre, was composed of the British 5th Corps and the Polish 2nd Corps). The French leader, Gaspard II de Coligny, sieur de Châtillon, a nephew of the Constable of France, set ladders against the fort at 2:00am but the alarm was sounded by members of the garrison who he believed he had successfully bribed. Bologna is the largest Polish cemetery with 1,432 soldiers of the 2 nd Corps who fell in battle on the Gothic Line, in the Apennines, on the River Senio and during the liberation of Bologna. Phillips, Gervase. An attempt to foul the harbour with a hulk laden with stones also failed to inconvenience the English garrison. The treaty provided that the English would evacuate Boulogne in 1554 in return for 2,000,000 crowns. By September, the upper town was breached and taken, but the central castle still held out. Boulogne was fortified and defended as an English possession on the French mainland between 14 September 1544 and March 1550.[1]. The building of any new fortifications was supposed to have ceased under the Treaty of Camp (or Treaty of Ardres) made in June 1546. Henry awaited a large French invasion fleet which never came, and subsequently much of England's military resources during his and his son's reigns were diverted to the war in Scotland. [1], In this conflict, Polish II Corps, commanded by General Zygmunt Bohusz-Szyszko, suffered 234 dead and 1,228 wounded out of 55,780 frontline personnel. Simon Renard reported that the English captain accepted his order to surrender from the Privy Council with a sigh. Now called Mont Lambert, it was then called Boulemberg. [1][6] The American and British troops completed their encirclement of the Germans forces north of the Reno River, and Indian units (8th Division) crossed the Po River. [1] Between 12–14 April Polish forces fought the Germans at the Santerno River, and captured Imola. [17], Edward VI recorded this night assault in his chronicle, with a failed attempt to burn the ships in the harbour. [16], A major attempt on Boulogne by the French was repulsed in May 1549. [1] On 17 April, the command of the British 8th Army ordered the Polish forces to continue their push towards Bologna from the east. With Mussolini now at large once more and the occupying Nazi troops putting up an increasingly tough resistance, the battle for Italy was set to be a long and deadly struggle. The American and British troops completed their encirclement of the Germans forces north of the Reno River, and Indian units (8th Division) crossed the Po River.The German forces in Italy capitulated on 29 April. [6], The Battle of Bologna was the last battle of the Polish 2nd Corps, which was taken out of the front line on 22 April. The French garrison's firepower prevented any approach on foot, so the English dug tunnels under the castle, and the French surrendered on 13 September. The Battle of Bologna (early December 1796) was a battle of the French Revolutionary Wars that occurred when a French army of 1,599 troops under Jean-Andre Massena sortied against a besieging Papal army of 756 troops under Nazario Lagrangia at the city of Bologna.. This page was last edited on 14 November 2020, at 19:25. 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