But before anything is done, the meaning of philosophy should be understood. In this article the four main branches of philosophy will be discussed as an overview to aid in understanding the importance of philosophy as a teacher, educator, parent, or student. %%EOF It analyzes the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief and justification. Memory allows us to know something that we knew in the past, even, perhaps, if we no longer remember the original justification. Branches of Philosophy The four main branches of philosophy are logic, epistemology, metaphysics, and axiology. It is the study of the rules of valid reasoning and argumentation. 3. h��VYo�8�+zl1���� @�I���@�����5�>[�6�~H�N�N3ۦ��0dQ")�?J\�>dD0zN�B/���;��ػD���p!] There is a hierarchical relationship between these branches as can be seen in the Concept Chart.At the root is Metaphysics, the study of existence and the nature of existence.Closely related is Epistemology, the study of knowledge and how we know about reality and existence. B. EPISTEMOLOGY--concerns with the nature of b}�o3012(������� ܝ METAPHYSICS--deals with the study of reality ; Ontology--explores issues related to nature, existence, or being ; Cosmology--concerned with the nature and origin of the cosmos or the universe. The issue here is not who was right, but that we all have In conclusion effort was made to clarify what ontology, epistemology and axiology entail so as to have clear understanding of what the terms mean. (it correspond to the slides of my class about knowledge in my subject “Logic and reasoning”) 2. It questions the existence of spiritual beings, nature of universe, life after death, etc. 2 Branches of Philosophy (cont.) ... Other Branches of Philosophy: Philosophy of Education: Fairly self-explanatory. AUTHORITATIVE KNOWLEDGE: based on information received from people, books, a supreme being, etc. Branches of epistemology. But all knowledge requires some amount of reasoning, the analysis of data and the drawing of inferences. There are a few main theories of knowledge acquisition: The fact that any given justification of knowledge will itself depend on another belief for its justification appears to lead to an infinite regress. Epistemology, also known as the theory of knowledge, will flourish as long as we deem knowledge valuable. Visit the Foundation for Creating A Mind With Heart and start exploring the true nature of your own Heart and Mind and how it creates your physical life experience. ", "What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology . Preface. The Branches of Philosophy Joe Bess AIU Online Abstract There are six branches of philosophy, they are Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics, Political, and Social. endstream endobj 146 0 obj <> endobj 147 0 obj <> endobj 148 0 obj <>stream It is the clear, lucid information gained through the process of reason applied to reality. It says whether the world is real or simply an illusion. It attempts to distinguish good reasoning from bad reasoning. It is essentially about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry. Formal epistemology – subdiscipline of epistemology that uses formal methods from logic, probability theory and computability theory to elucidate traditional epistemic problems. It is that branch of philosophy which goes beyond the realms of science. 172 0 obj <>stream endstream endobj startxref We shall, I predict, continue to value knowledge, if only for its instrumental value: it gets us through the … Epistemology is the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and justified belief. The kind of knowledge usually discussed in Epistemology is propositional knowledge, "knowledge-that" as opposed to "knowledge-how" (for example, the knowledge that "2 + 2 = 4", as opposed to the knowledge of how to go about adding two numbers). The difference between the two is that preservationist SE clings more closely to traditional paradigms of mainstream epistemology whereas expansionist SE ventures a bit further into unfamiliar terrain.¹ As a prolegomenon to an assessment of SE’s prospects, then, let us consider The mission of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is to clarify what the conception of knowledge involves, how it is applied, and to explain why it has the features it does.And the idea of knowledge at issue here must,in the first in-stance at least,be construed in its modest sense to include also belief,conjecture, and the like. After all, if I had walked past the clock a bit earlier or a bit later, I would have ended up with a false belief rather than a true one. The Semantics of Science, which is based on the analysis, systematization and interpretation of all scientific concepts. Epistemology is the study of our method of acquiring knowledge.It answers the question, "How do we know?" h�b```f``2g`a``i``@ �r4��,Pa�P�O\�,��N` considered bona fide branches of epistemology. Knowledge can also be transmitted from one individual to another via testimony (that is, my justification for a particular belief could amount to the fact that some trusted source has told me that it is true). As you explore the branches of philosophy, remember to keep Metaphysics first and foremost. ", "How is knowledge acquired? A philosopher of religion must be objective. Knowledge is the awareness and understanding of particular aspects of reality. Title: Branches of Philosophy 1 Branches of Philosophy. The following are the branches that we will focus on: Metaphysics Epistemology Teleology Ethics Logic The Main Branches of Philosophy are divided as to the nature of the questions asked in each area. Empiricism and rationalism can be specified as the two major constructing debates within the field of epistemological study that relates to business studies. According to Guba cited in Marovic, 2000), at the objectivist end of this( continuum one finds the logical-positivist epistemology, where the observer’s Epistemology has different branches on which it bases its studies, and these are the following: 1. 145 0 obj <> endobj Skepticism begins with the apparent impossibility of completing this infinite chain of reasoning, and argues that, ultimately, no beliefs are justified and therefore no one really knows anything. ", "How we are to understand the concept of justification? ", "What do people know? In response to this regress problem, various schools of thought have arisen: Under the heading of Epistemology, the major doctrines or theories include. The main branches of philosophy include axiology, epistemology, metaphysics and logic. Fallibilism also claims that absolute certainty about knowledge is impossible, or at least that all claims to knowledge could, in principle, be mistaken. The Logic of Science, which is responsible for analyzing the logical structure of scientific theories. Epistemology: Epistemology literally means “science of knowledge. As I explain, positivism and interpretivism are research paradigms, and epistemology and ontology are beliefs included in these paradigms. [1]Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. 158 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<05DB0CB75A74D942B1D7E29BBF9467B7><734D205F59B3D643B06938FD530DCBC0>]/Index[145 28]/Info 144 0 R/Length 73/Prev 135207/Root 146 0 R/Size 173/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream The paper examines ontological presuppositions and epistemological branches of Peace and Conflict Studies. 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